“Wormholes” and space-time travel



By Ann Tyller | February 20, 2016 8:42 am

All you need of travel in time is a tunnel in space-time and go through it. This will require only a so-called exotic matter – a substance that detract rather than attracted by gravity. –

The problem is that nobody knows how this substance is created, – says the New Zealand scientist Matt Visser of the University of Victoria. As it is known from science fiction novels and films, tunnels are favorite ways of time travelers.

As it is known from science fiction novels and films, tunnels are favorite ways of time travelers

As it is known from science fiction novels and films, tunnels are favorite ways of time travelers

These hypothetical tunnel connecting distant from each other are part of the space-time, which forms the universe. Although the tunnels are making a real chaos in the conception of causality, the theory of general relativity allows their existence.

A few years ago, Visser and his colleague David Hochberg said that in order to remain open wormholes need to have exotic substance to acquire negative energy – that is less than the energy of empty space.

No physicists have ever encountered anything like it. So they just device this substance.

The key to the creation of the exotic matter lies, according to them, is in the quantum fluctuations that give empty space a kind of movement. Quantum theory says that subatomic particles and antiparticles constantly appear and disappear in the vacuum of empty space.

Exotic matter may appear to suppress this game or violate state of average zero vacuum energy. If that happened, it would appear a tiny amount of exotic matter.

As it turned out by calculations by Visser and his colleagues, if properly arrange a wormhole would take an infinitely small amount of exotic matter. That means that to create a wormhole would be much easier.

Unfortunately no one ever figures out how to get this stuff.

However it is not enough to create exotic matter. We also must to learn how to travel through space. Experts say that the future space’ travelers will have to choose between danger and unpredictability.

This conclusion was drawn by researchers Roman Buniy and Stephen Hsu at the University of Oregon in the United States. Fans of science fiction know that “black holes”, or so-called “wormholes”, helping shortcut through space and time, sucking in objects at one end and spitting them on the other side. The distance from one point to another is much shorter than the traditional travel span across the universe.

To better understand the phenomenon of “black holes”, one can imagine the universe in the form of a piece of paper which is then folded neatly in half. Then, at the greatest distance from the fold line paper must pierce needle. This creates a “wormhole” connecting two distant points in the universe. However, for this trick to work while traveling in space-time, a hypothetical tunnel must be an unknown form of matter. American physicists have studied the properties of such matter in two theoretical types of “wormholes”. The first type is generally subject to the laws of classical physics, and does not move in time, while the second follows the rules of quantum mechanics, and thus inherits its unpredictability.

This unpredictability means that there is no guarantee that by using a quantum tunnel, one can be in a certain point in space-time. “The danger is that the final destination of “wormholes”, which varies over time, it may be end up the common wall or on the bottom of the Pacific Ocean” – says Hsu or a traveler “can go a year before the journey or a year after”

Wormholes entirely governed by the laws of quantum mechanics, on the other hand, would likely transport their payloads to an undesired time and place.

Thus, the wormhole travelers caught between Scylla and Charybdis; they will have to choose between security and the relative stability in this method of transportation.

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